Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Genetic Causes and Clinical Manifestations

January 13, 2024by Dr. Shehrezad Czar0


Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a genetic condition affecting the body’s responsiveness to androgens, the male sex hormones. These hormones are crucial for typical male sexual development, and AIS can lead to varying degrees of male sexual characteristics in individuals who are genetically male (having one X and one Y chromosome).

Genetic Causes of AIS

  1. Genetic Background:
    • AIS is primarily caused by mutations in the Androgen Receptor (AR) gene, located on the X chromosome. This gene is crucial for the normal functioning of androgen receptors.
    • Since males have only one X chromosome, a single defective AR gene is enough to cause the condition.
  2. Types of Mutations:
    • The nature of mutations can vary greatly, ranging from mild changes that partially affect receptor function to significant alterations that completely inactivate the receptor.
    • Over 1,000 different mutations in the AR gene have been identified in individuals with AIS.
  3. Inheritance Pattern:
    • AIS is inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern. Female carriers often do not show symptoms but have a 50% chance of passing the mutated gene to their offspring.

Clinical Manifestations

AIS is categorized into three types based on the degree of androgen insensitivity and the resulting physical characteristics:

  1. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS):
    • Individuals with CAIS have a typical female external genitalia despite having a male XY karyotype.
    • They often have undescended testes and do not develop secondary male sex characteristics during puberty.
    • Vaginal depth may be shorter, and they do not menstruate due to the absence of a uterus and ovaries.
  2. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (PAIS):
    • In PAIS, the degree of insensitivity varies. Individuals may have a mix of male and female sexual characteristics.
    • They may have ambiguous genitalia or predominantly male or female genitalia.
    • Secondary sexual characteristics can vary widely, depending on the level of androgen receptor functionality.
  3. Mild Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (MAIS):
    • Individuals typically have male genitalia.
    • They may experience minor feminization at puberty, such as gynecomastia (breast development).
    • Fertility may be affected to various extents.

Diagnosis and Management

  1. Diagnosis:
    • Diagnosis often occurs during infancy for those with ambiguous genitalia or in early adolescence due to absent menstruation or failure to develop secondary sexual characteristics.
    • Diagnostic tools include genetic testing, hormone level testing, and imaging studies to assess internal reproductive structures.
  2. Management:
    • Management is tailored to each individual and may include hormone therapy, surgical correction of genital anomalies, and psychological support.
    • In cases of CAIS and some PAIS, gonadectomy may be considered to prevent the risk of testicular cancer.
  3. Psychosocial Considerations:
    • Counseling and support for individuals and families are crucial.
    • Gender identity and personal choices regarding gender expression should be respected and supported.


Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome presents a complex interplay between genetics and hormone action. Understanding its genetic basis and clinical manifestations is key to providing effective and empathetic care to those affected. Ongoing research and dialogue in the fields of genetics, endocrinology, and psychology are vital in improving the lives of individuals with AIS.

Also Read: Unraveling the Mysteries of Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

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