Angiotensinogen and Angiotensin: Unraveling Hormonal Disruptions in Pituitary Dysfunction – A Comprehensive Review

January 25, 2024by Dr. S. F. Czar0


Pituitary dysfunction, a complex condition affecting the master gland of the endocrine system, has been a subject of extensive research in recent years. This comprehensive review delves into the intricate relationship between angiotensinogen and angiotensin and their role in hormonal disruptions associated with pituitary dysfunction.

Angiotensinogen: A Crucial Precursor:

Angiotensinogen, a liver-derived glycoprotein, serves as the precursor for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). This system plays a pivotal role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance. Angiotensinogen is cleaved by renin to form angiotensin I, which is subsequently converted into angiotensin II by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The multifaceted roles of angiotensin II extend beyond its classical cardiovascular functions, encompassing intricate interactions with the endocrine system.

Angiotensin in Pituitary Dysfunction:

Recent studies have shed light on the impact of angiotensin on pituitary function, implicating its involvement in hormonal disruptions. Angiotensin receptors are expressed in various cell types within the pituitary gland, suggesting a direct influence on the secretion of hormones such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin.

  1. Role in ACTH Secretion: Angiotensin II has been demonstrated to stimulate the secretion of ACTH, a key hormone involved in the regulation of the adrenal glands. Dysregulation of this process may contribute to conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome or Addison’s disease, where abnormal cortisol levels disrupt the body’s homeostasis.
  2. Impact on Growth Hormone Secretion: The intricate interplay between angiotensin and growth hormone has been identified. Angiotensin II appears to modulate the release of growth hormone, with potential implications for disorders related to growth, including gigantism and dwarfism.
  3. Influence on Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone: Angiotensin receptors in the pituitary also play a role in regulating the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Dysregulation in this pathway may contribute to thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism.
  4. Connection to Prolactin Secretion: Prolactin, a hormone involved in lactation, is influenced by angiotensin signaling within the pituitary. Understanding this connection may have implications for conditions such as hyperprolactinemia or insufficient lactation.

Clinical Implications and Therapeutic Considerations:

Understanding the intricate relationship between angiotensinogen, angiotensin, and pituitary function opens new avenues for therapeutic interventions. Targeting angiotensin receptors may offer novel approaches to modulate hormonal secretion in pituitary dysfunction. Additionally, drugs targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, commonly used in cardiovascular conditions, may have unforeseen effects on endocrine regulation and should be carefully evaluated in patients with pituitary disorders.


This comprehensive review highlights the emerging role of angiotensinogen and angiotensin in pituitary dysfunction, providing a deeper understanding of the intricate interplay between the cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Further research is warranted to elucidate the specific mechanisms and potential therapeutic applications of targeting angiotensin pathways in the context of pituitary disorders. As we unravel the complexities of these hormonal disruptions, we move closer to innovative approaches for diagnosis and treatment, offering hope for individuals grappling with pituitary dysfunction.


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